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  Multi Lingual Internet Mail Magazine

  jp-Swiss-journal  Vol. 192 July 01, 2020 (Swiss Time)

   http://www.swissjapanwatcher.ch/
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目次 / INDEX / INHALTSVERZEICHNIS

 

 J

スイスのコロナ危機で考えたこと

                          明子 ヒューリマン

 

 

 

E

Thoughts during the Corona Crisis in Switzerland

 

                  Akiko Huerlimann

 

□━━━━━━━━━━━━【 日本語 】━━━━━━━━━━━━━━□

 

 

        スイスのコロナ危機で考えたこと

 

 

                                明子 ヒューリマン

 

 

スイス連邦政府が316日(月曜日)深夜に緊急事態宣言を出した。*1) 65歳とそれ以上の高齢者、持病のある人は、外出を自粛して家に居て下さい」と、解除された323日まで、日に何度も公共放送SRFで伝えられた。何やら只ならぬ雰囲気だった。

 

1週間後の330日には、地元カントンの保健局から65歳以上の住民宛に手紙が送られて来た。「買い物などの支援をします」という内容だ。具体的な活動は地元自治体が担うそうだ。高齢者支援組織「Pro Senectute*2) や、スーパーマーケットのミグロとコープも買い物支援サーヴィスをほぼ同時に開始した。思いがけない申し出に、何とご親切な事と思ったが、気持ちだけ頂いて自助努力をすることにしている。本当に手助けが必要な人が他に沢山居る筈だから。

 

支援対象者を年金支給開始年齢を基準にしたようだが、そもそも、支援が必要な年齢設定が65歳以上というのは現実的とは思えない。80歳以上が妥当ではないかと思う。スイスの年金生活者は、持病が無ければ、いや多少の体調不良はあっても、現役世代に遜色ないくらい概ね元気で、時間の余裕もある。仕事や収入がなくなる心配はないので、実際のところ、彼らの日常生活に大きな変化はない。

 

しかし、規制解除後も個人的には旅行へ出掛ける予定は一旦止めた。不特定多数の人々が行き交うところへは、出来るだけ出掛けたくない。飛行機を使って行く旅行も、疲れるし、環境に負荷を掛けるし、まだまだどこも安全ではなさそうなので、当分は考えていない。その代わり、自宅で不用品の処分をしたり、普段出来ない掃除をしたりして住まいを快適に整え、貯まっている本を読みたい。

 

近所でマスクを着けている人は、中高年でも若い世代でも殆ど見かけない。家の前に託児所があるが、幼子の面倒を見る職員も、子供の送り迎えをする若い親達も、マスクを着けている人は先ず見かけない。インフルエンザが流行る季節でさえマスクをしている人は見かけないのがスイスだ!

 

当初、連邦内務省保健局が、「マスクは他人を守る為には有効だが、自分を守る事にはならない」という趣旨の見解を示して、マスク着用を奨励しなかった。実は、マスクの在庫が無いという事情もあった事が後に知れた。*3)

 

629日、メディアはツューリッヒの300人の大量隔離を大きく報じた。621日の日曜日夜に、ツューリッヒのクラブに出掛けた6人にCovid-19の陽性反応が出た為だが、当局はクラブ訪問者を追跡して10日間の自宅隔離を課した。彼らは市内のクラブを数カ所ハシゴしていたという。グラウビュンデンでも、ベルグラード(セルビア)でパーティーに参加した大勢の東欧出身者がスイスに戻った後、Covid-19の大量感染が報じられ、未だ安心出来る状況ではない。

 

連邦当局と州当局は、コロナ感染者が再び増え続け、第二波が到来したかも知れないという事態を懸念して、にわかにマスク着用を義務づける検討を始めた。現状はデモ参加者のみマスク着用が義務づけられている。これまで連邦政府の大臣達のマスク姿を報道などで見ることは無かったが、ソンマルーガ大統領がデモンストレートンの意味も込めて遂にマスクを着用し始めた。*4)

 

71日のターゲス・アンツァイガー紙は、「マスクの着用は他の人だけでなく、自分自身も守る」と報じた。そして本日71日、スイス政府は202076日から、公共交通機関の利用者に対してフェイスマスクを義務化することを決定した。その結果、マスクの買い占めが始まったらしい。

 

ベルンの日本大使館は、1月末からコロナ関連情報のメール配信を始めた。*5) 225日、ティチーノ在住の70歳の男性のスイス国内初の新型コロナウイルス感染が報じられた。325日からは、スイスのコロナヴィールス感染者数と死亡者数を連日メール配信している。その時点での累計感染者数は(確定感染者)9,765人(前日比+929)、累計死亡者数は103人(前日比+17人)と、1ヶ月で急増した。そして、6 268時現在のコロナヴィールス累計感染者数は実に31,403(前日比+58)10万人あたりの感染者数は367.5人、累計死亡者数は1,681(前日比0)にまで達した。

 

この間、スイス政府による規制が度々変化して分かり難かったこともあるのか、国内メディアの報道がコロナ一色になって4ヶ月が経とうとしている今でさえ、国民の防御意識に大きな変化は伺えないようだ。人々の間にコロナ疲れが出てきているとも言われている。

 

スイスの人口は2019年度857万人なので、日本と比較すると圧倒的に感染者数が多い。日本のコロナ感染者数、重症者、死者が何故少ないのか、世界では謎のように思われているらしいが、ある程度当然と考えられる。

 

日本では、マスクを着ける習慣が長年定着している。風邪を引いたときには他の人に移さない為にマナーとしてマスクを着用する。これは、日本の公衆衛生教育のたまものであろう。花粉症の人もマスクを着用するので、今や、マスクは季節の必需品にさえなっているようで、日常的にマスクをしている人が実に多い。スイスの特派員は、「日本では、マスクをしていないと裸でいるように感じるらしい」とさえ言った。

 

家の中には土足で上がらない。玄関の段差が外と内の厳然とした結界になっている。トイレには専用スリッパが置いてある!日本は、高温多湿で空気中のヴィールスや細菌が欧州より多いと聞いているので、こうした習慣になったものか?英国に滞在した当初、雨がちで湿気の多い気候であるにもかかわらず、土足で絨毯が敷かれた室内に入る事に驚いた。日本人なら「黴菌が蔓延する、不衛生!」と感じるに違いない。

 

更に、食事の際日本人は、必ず箸やスプーン・フォークなどを使い、手づかみで食べ物を口に入れることは希だ。それでも、左程高級店で無くても喫茶店や料理屋に入ると、お絞りと水やお茶が無料で出される。言うまでも無く家で食事をする前には皆手を洗う。

 

しかし、欧米ではパンを手で食べるのに、お絞りは用意されない。食事やお茶に招かれた時も、出されるのは口元を拭う為の乾いたナプキンのみ。挨拶では、握手をし、ハグをし、両頬にキスをしたりして濃厚接触の機会が少なくない。

 

武漢発と言われる、コロナヴィールスの実態さえ未だ不明だ。医師や研究者は、ヴィールスは様々な変異を遂げている、あるいは、コロナヴィールスは存在しない等々まで、専門家の見解も未だ確定していないようだ。*6) ワクチンや治療薬の開発競争が激化していることが報じられているが、信頼出来る薬や治療法を期待するには何年もかかるらしい。

 

最近各国が移動の禁止を解除する中で、外国からの帰国者がヴィールスを持ち込んで感染を拡大させる傾向があることが知られ、いずれの国も苦慮している。マスクの着用だけ義務付けて、移動や集う自由は解禁するか否か?経済的影響から判断が迫られている。日本のネット上で、「移動制限は意味が無かった」という情報を興味深く読んだ。*7

 

スイスでも日本でも、当局は感染者数と死者数は発表するが、重要な情報である年齢別重症者数とICUの患者数、退院した人数と死者数で危険度を推し量りたいのに、死者数以外のこうした情報は報じられない。世界中のこの異様な横並びの対応には、当初から違和感を覚えていた。

 

コロナ危機は、実質的に民主主義の一旦停止を意味した。スイスではこのことが、様々議論され報道されてきた。スイス政府の緊急事態宣言で、開会中の連邦議会が一旦中断された。程なく臨時議会はコロナ仕様で開催され、数々のコロナ対策が議会で決定された。しかし、この時点まで、連邦政府が国のすべての機能を支配し、議会制民主主義は麻痺したと言われた。

 

感染情報を隠蔽する国も多く、世界中の権力者が、好機とばかりに、コロナ危機を利用して権力基盤の強化を模索したようだ。しかし、コロナ危機を利用するどころか、意に反してコロナヴィールスに翻弄される事態にさえなっている。世界中をコロナ渦が席巻して国民生活を直撃した。事態が収束する時期は未だ誰にも分からない。

 

 

【 参照 】

 

*1) 連邦政府説明「COVID-19の現状と決定」16.03.2020

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fnuTzODXLvw&list=PLEnHzNShzOwY6kPEUQA2x42VCkxbJ-pOl&index=42&t=0s

*2) Pro Senectute: https://www.prosenectute.ch/de.html

*3) スイス連邦内務省保険局/Bundesamt fuer Gesundheit BAG:

https://www.bag.admin.ch/bag/de/home/krankheiten/ausbrueche-epidemien-pandemien/aktuelle-ausbrueche-epidemien/novel-cov.html

*4) 連邦大統領が公共交通機関でマスク着用:

https://www.blick.ch/news/politik/das-schuetzt-mich-und-andere-auch-sommaruga-traegt-jetzt-im-oev-maske-id15961553.html

*5) 在スイス日本大使館:

https://www.ch.emb-japan.go.jp/itpr_ja/coronavirus_ja.html

*6) コロナヴィールスは存在しない?

https://www.bitchute.com/video/6LCBbSKWv0Sl/

http://wonderful-ww.jugem.jp/?eid=2327

http://www.asyura2.com/19/kokusai28/msg/788.html

*7) 「移動制限は意味が無かった」:

https://news.nifty.com/article/domestic/society/12280-705918/

 

 

【 編集後記 】

 

スイスの直接民主主義は戻された。5月に予定されていた国民投票は、コロナ危機で一旦キャンセルされたが、幸い、927日に国民投票が実施されることが決定した。これについては次号でお伝えする積り。

 

 

□━━━━━━━━━━━━ English ━━━━━━━━━━━━━□

 

 

   Thoughts during the Corona Crisis in Switzerland

 

                      Akiko Huerlimann

 

 

The Swiss Federal Government proclaimed a State of Emergency at midnight on Monday, March 16th 2020. *1) "Persons at the age of 65 years or elder, or persons who have a chronic illness, please do refrain from going out and stay at home," announced public broadcaster SRF before the news bulletin several times a day until the restrictions were eased a bit on March 23, 2020. It was a something unusual atmosphere.

 

One week later on March 30, a letter was sent by the local Canton Health Department to residents over the age of 65 years. Its contents: "We will support shopping etc." Local Municipalities are responsible for the specific activities. The elderly support organization "Pro Senectute" *2) and supermarkets "Migros" and "Coop" had also started shopping support services at the same time. For me, it was an unexpected kind of offer, but I and my husband decided to do our best to help ourselves. We thought, there might be many other people who really needed help.

 

It seems that the action was based on the official pension age, however, in the first place, I don't think, it is realistic that the required age setting for support is 65 years or elder. I would rather think that the age of 80 years or elder is appropriate. The Swiss pensioners are in general almost as healthy as the working generation if they have no illness, or even if they are a little unwell, and they still have more time. They don't have to worry about losing their jobs or income. As a matter of fact, their everyday lives haven't made any major changes.

 

However, even after the restrictions were largely lifted, we decided to stop going on travel. We don't want to go to places where an unspecified number of people come and go. Traveling by Air is tiring and causes a heavy burden to the environment and is unlikely to be fully safe yet, so we don't think about it for the time being. Instead of travelling, I'd like to dispose of unnecessary items, do cleaning that I can't usually do, to make my living comfortable and read the books I have accumulated.

 

Few people in the neighborhood wear face masks, whether they are middle-aged or young. There is a nursery center in front of our apartment. Neither the staff members who take care of the infants nor the young parents who pick up the children are wearing masks. You can't see people wearing face masks even in the flu season, that is Switzerland!

 

Initially, the Federal Department of Health and the Swiss Government did not encourage the people to wear face masks, saying, "Face masks are good at protecting Others, but are not protecting Yourself". Actually, it was later known that there was a situation that face masks were out of stock then. *3)

 

On June 29, the media reported a mass quarantine of 300 people in Zurich. On Sunday night, at June 21, six people who visited a Club in Zurich tested positive for Covid-19. The Zurich authorities tried to trace the Club visitors based on a contact-list and imposed a 10-Day home quarantine. The six partygoers said they had visited several more Clubs in the City then. In Graubuenden, it was reported that there was a large number of people infected with Covid-19, after coming back to Switzerland from a party in Belgrade (Serbia), so it is still uncertain.

 

Now, Federal and Cantonal authorities have begun to look into a compulsory wearing of face masks as the number of Corona-infected people continues to rise; there are fears of a second wave of the Virus. Currently, only protesters are required to wear a face masks during a protest march. So far, I haven't seen photographs showing the Federal Ministers wearing face masks in public, but now the Federal President Mrs. Sommaruga has finally began to wear a Face Mask in public transport emphasizing the importance of wearing face masks in public. *4

 

Then, the Tages-Anzeiger Newspaper of July 1 reported that "Masks protect not only the others, but also the mask-wearer himself". Today, the Swiss Government decided to make face masks compulsory for public transport users from July 6, 2020. As a result, it seems that the panic buying of masks has started.

 

The Japanese Embassy in Switzerland based in Berne started mailing Corona-related information from the end of January. *5) On February 25, it was reported that a 70-year-old man living in the Ticino was infected as the first person with the new Corona Virus in Switzerland. From March 25, the Japanese Embassy started to distribute information on the number of infected and dead people with the Corona Virus in Switzerland by E-mail every day. At that time, the cumulative number of infected persons (confirmed infected cases) was at 9,765 (+929 from the previous day), and the cumulative number of fatalities was at 103 (+17 from the previous day), a sharp increase in one month. As of eight o'clock on June 26, the cumulative number of Corona Virus infected persons was 31,403 (+58), the number of infections per 100,000 was at 367.5, and the cumulative number of deaths was 1,681 (0 compared to the previous day).

 

Perhaps, it was difficult to understand the restrictions of the Swiss Government, which have changed frequently during this period, and even now, it is approx. four months since domestic media coverage has become full of Corona news; still there seems no big change in the public awareness regarding to the defense. It is also spoken of a certain amount of Corona-Fatigue in the general public.

 

Switzerland had a population of 8.57 Mio. as of 2019, the number of infected people is therefore overwhelmingly higher than in Japan. It seems to be a mystery in the world why the number of Corona infections in Japan, the seriously ill patients, and the fatalities are so small, but it seems to be natural to some extent.

 

In Japan, the custom of wearing a face mask has been established for many years. When you have a cold, you wear a face mask as a manner to prevent it from being transferred to other people. This may be the result of public health education in Japan. People with hay fever also wear face masks, so it seems that face masks are now even a seasonal necessity, and many people wear them on a daily basis. A Swiss correspondent even said, "In Japan, people seem to feel naked without a face mask."

 

Nobody gets into a Japanese house with shoes. The level Difference at the house entrance makes a clear Barrier between the outside and the inside. There are slippers in the toilet for exclusive use! I heard that Japan is hot and humid and has more Viruses and Bacteria in the Air than in Europe, therefore such a habit might have been introduced. When I first stayed in the UK, I was surprised that you are allowed to enter into a carpeted room with shoes, despite the wet and humid climate. If you are Japanese, you must feel that "mold fungus spreads, it is unsanitary!"

 

Furthermore, Japanese people use always chopsticks, spoons, and forks for meals, and it is rare to eat foods by hand. Even though, if you go into a coffee shop or a restaurant although it is not a high-class restaurant, you will be given a free wet towel and water or tea. Needless to say, everybody must wash hands before eating at home.

 

However, in Europe and America, people eat bread by hand, but a wet towel is not offered. When you are invited to a meal or tea, you will be offered simply a dry napkin to wipe your mouth. The greeting ceremony, offers many opportunities for heavy contacts by shaking hands, hugging, or even kissing both cheeks.

 

The Corona Virus which is said to have originated from Wuhan, the reality is still unknown. The View of experts, such as doctors and researchers seems to have yet to be confirmed; the Virus has undergone various mutations, or the Corona Virus does not even exist. *6) It has been reported that competition for the development of vaccines and therapeutic remedies is intensifying, but it seems that it will take years to expect reliable drugs and therapeutic methods.

 

While countries have recently lifted the Ban on Movement, it is known that returnees from abroad tend to bring viruses and spread the infection, and these countries are suffering. The question is that of compulsory wearing a face mask only and be free to move or gather? Judging is also requested from the economic impact. I read interestingly the information that "moving restrictions were meaningless". *7)

 

In both Switzerland and Japan, the authorities announce the number of infected people and the number of people died, but they do not inform the important information, which allows to estimate the degree of risk based on figures such as the severely ill people by age, the number of ICU-Patients, the number of people discharged from the hospital, and the number of people dead. No such information other than the number of deaths is reported. From the beginning, I felt odd with that strange side-by-side correspondence around the world.

 

The Corona crisis virtually meant an abeyance of democracy. This topic has been widely discussed and reported in Switzerland. The Swiss Government's declaration of a State of Emergency suspended the Parliament session. Soon after, an extraordinary parliament session was held based on Corona specifications, and a number of measures against Corona were passed by the Parliament. However, until at this point, it was said that the Federal Government ruled all the functions of the country and the parliamentary democracy was paralyzed.

 

There are many countries that hide the information about the infections, and it seems that the powerful people sought to strengthen the power base by taking advantage of the Corona crisis around the world. However, when trying to misuse the Corona crisis for their own purpose, the Corona Virus disturbed their intentions. Corona vortex swept the world and hit the national life directly. No one knows when the situation will be settled yet.

 

 

[Reference]

 

*1) Coronavirus (COVID-19) Current status and decisions as of

16.03.2020:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fnuTzODXLvw&list=PLEnHzNShzOwY6kPEUQA2x42VCkxbJ-pOl&index=42&t=0s

*2) Pro Senectute: https://www.prosenectute.ch/de.html

*3) Federal Office of Public Health FOPH:

https://www.bag.admin.ch/bag/en/home/krankheiten/ausbrueche-epidemien-pandemien/aktuelle-ausbrueche-epidemien/novel-cov.html

*4) Federal President wears a mask on public transport:

https://www.blick.ch/news/politik/das-schuetzt-mich-und-andere-auch-sommaruga-traegt-jetzt-im-oev-maske-id15961553.html

*5) Japanese Embassy in Switzerland:

https://www.ch.emb-japan.go.jp/itpr_ja/coronavirus_ja.html

*6) Corona Virus do not exist?

https://www.bitchute.com/video/6LCBbSKWv0Sl/

http://wonderful-ww.jugem.jp/?eid=2327

http://www.asyura2.com/19/kokusai28/msg/788.html

*7) "Movement restrictions were meaningless":

https://news.nifty.com/article/domestic/society/12280-705918/

 

 

[ Editorial Postscript ]

 

Swiss direct democracy returned The Popular Vote scheduled for May was once canceled due to the corona crisis. Fortunately, it has been decided that a Popular Vote will be taken place on September 27.

I shall report about this in the next issue.

 

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